Random House, New York. Wind turbine development A critique of the differences in policies between the Netherlands and Denmark , Linda M. The Art of Writing Scientific Reports. Norton, F.
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Reprinted from The Scientific Monthly, December Thesis and dissertation writing: an examination of published advice and actual practice , Brian Paltridge. School of Informatics, The University of Edinburgh. Advice for Finishing that Damn Ph. Daniel M.
University of Waterloo, Canada. There Can Be Only Six MIT Media Lab.
Wikipedia: Doctor of Philosophy , Wikipedia. Notes : very useful and complete advice. How not to get a PhD.. Phillips and Derek S. Guardian Newspapers Limited. Notes : "Discover how to avoid failure in this extract from Estelle M.
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Phillips' and Derek S. Pugh's How to get a PhD". Useful Things to Know About Ph. Thesis Research , H. Dept of Computer Science, University of Toronto. Joseph Levine. Michigan State University. Notes : There are also Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic versions at this location. School of Computing Sciences. University of East Anglia. Notes : Collection of links. See also Organization of a Dissertation Proposal.
University of Birmingham. So long, and thanks for the Ph. How to write a thesis statement , Writing Tutorial Services. Indiana University. National Academy Press, Washington, D. The dialect of these theses is no longer Times Roman, Baskerville, or Arial normal. Concerns with designing the typographic voice do not happen in isolation. Currently within the academy there are contestations across diverse disciplines where researchers seek to extend the richness and clarity of their communicative potential. Such contestations include multimodal research formats that enable the researcher to embed audio and animated files Ings , the employment of polyvocal writing Hamilton , and new approaches to document design including page orientation, proportion, foldout spreads, and pictorial information graphics.
These observations are not new. Historically students rarely laid out their theses Hodge , and today many universities still have fixed guidelines within which candidates are expected to operate. By extension, most academic journals still have their typographical voices prescribed by editors. Normally, what scholars write is formatted in a pre-set visual dialect before it is released for public consumption.
Extending the notion of ‘text’: the visual and performing arts doctoral thesis
In considering this issue, this article employs a case study methodology. Although the use of typographic design is not a ubiquitous practice in higher research degree exegeses, it is becoming increasingly evident in the fields of creative writing, architecture and visual communication design Ings In the broader domain, Ravelli and Starfield note that it builds upon emerging approaches adopted in wider academic scholarship. A case study methodology is useful because it can be used to consider a distinct participant pool, drawing conclusions only about that group and only within a defined context.
Anchored in real life Flyvbjerg , suggests that the case study can be employed to illuminate and explicate a subject and its related contextual conditions Thomas Because a case study does not seek to produce either generalisable, transferable truths, or cause—effect relationships, its usefulness lies in its ability to consider and describe what is existing and evident Feagin Accordingly such emphasis may open spaces, trajectories and encounters that had not been previously envisaged or imagined.
By exploring pedagogically such meaning making possibilities we have the ability to significantly enrich processes of writing. When we talk about designing such a voice, we are considering not only letterforms but also a range of other factors including spacing tracking, kerning and leading  , justification and line set, emphasis weight, size , and complementary relationships. These issues are integral to how visual communication designers construct written text.
Indeed, critical writing in the discipline has a long history of expression through typography. Among the most respected professional and academic journals: I. D est. Approaches to voicing the thesis through renegotiations of its typographic form are not new. The latter was designed with a distinctive arrangement of spacing that replaced uppercase letters, full stops and commas.
Significantly, Anderson in his discussion of the employment of designers by academic publishers notes that most journals pursue solutions closely related to the aesthetics of authority. She also states that writers should avoid more than two typefaces in a single document and refrain from underlining for emphasis. Significantly, her advice is that when in doubt the student seeking an authentic typographical voice should err on the side of conservatism . But perhaps it is useful to question this preoccupation with convention.
Thus, she argued typefaces like Helvetica, Bell Gothic, Arial, Univers and Interstate have become ubiquitous voices of a dominant order that we rarely question. She suggested that these faces, being utopian and generic, belong nowhere, they are regionless, and without an accent. In a mediated, global environment, they have no dialect and no affiliation to region and although seemingly non-aligned; they are culturally superficial and stereotypical.
Typefaces like these have become the default for much publishing, including a lot of what is produced within the academy. Inside these, our dialects of otherness become subsumed and reconstituted. Significantly, Salen suggests that it is against these sanctioned faces of the dominant order that typographical representations of otherness become demarcated and defined. But what of otherness? The same may be said for many New Zealand universities  , although there is increasing flexibility around format that in certain institutions may be agreed to by the department, supervisor and the candidate .
The following case studies demonstrate the distinctive ways in which four individual visual communication designers renegotiated these guidelines in the pursuit of a more nuanced voice that might speak with a greater level of resonance to the analytical and subjective concerns of their work.
Figure 1. Background Derek Ventling trained as a graphic designer in Switzerland. His MPhil thesis constituted a practice-led investigation into light as a metaphor for divine wisdom and considered how it might interact conceptually, physically and creatively with manual craft. This treatise proposed a connective relationship between manual skill, sense perception, intellectual capacity and divine wisdom as the source of all illumination.
Designing the voice Discussing the typographical rationale for his writing the candidate stated:. It is my intention to create a cohesive expression of the reflective-personal and the scholarly, using both discursive and visual modes of communication. My desire is that this thesis might therefore be accessible and of use to, both the academy and graphic design practitioners.
Ventling Articles Cited by. English for Specific Purposes 21 2 , , Genre in the classroom: Multiple perspectives, , Journal of second language writing 15 3 , , The handbook of English for specific purposes, , Articles 1—20 Show more. Help Privacy Terms. Thesis and dissertation writing: An examination of published advice and actual practice B Paltridge English for Specific Purposes 21 2 , , Genre, text type, and the language learning classroom B Paltridge Oxford University Press 50 3 , , Genre analysis and the identification of textual boundaries B Paltridge Applied linguistics 15 3 , , Academic writing B Paltridge Language teaching 37 2 , ,