While Islamic culture.
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In this paper, we will examine the historical and contemporary cultural and political forces that influence women in Pakistan. Particular attention will be given to the influence of General Zia al Haq on women's rights; this will be illustrated by examining Pakistani government policies on women before, during, and after his rule.
The historical and contemporary cultural and political forces are different in the influence on women. In the past, Pakistani. As warfare increased from city-states expanding their territories, warrior culture generated male dominance, and the reproductive capacity. While the years following. Unlike the western society Bangladeshi women hardly demand the absolute equality—equal share in parental property, full freedom and liberation as individuals. Rather they love to see their roles within social contexts and would prefer gender equity within the traditional framework.
The status of women in our society can be explained from the social attitude and.
Muslim womanhood: Education and empowerment in India and Pakistan
It can be clearly seen that Allah has created men and women differently, this is so that they may fulfil different purposes in life. It is not a question of the superiority of one gender over another, rather it is a matter of role differentiation.
Islam teaches that men and women complement one another and are both equally important. On the other hand, this is not the case is many cultures and traditions; before and after Islam, the status of woman throughout much of the world was …show more content…. A woman, only as a woman, is seen only equal to man, but certainly not greater, if not slightly inferior in some circumstances.
Gender, Work and Organization , In this context, policies at global and national levels demand that more female development practitioners work in remote rural places in Pakistan, thus creating new employment opportunities for some Pakistani women. This article argues that, in this work environment, these women are exposed to different expectations about their gender behaviour and that they therefore develop physical strategies on the one hand and discursive strategies on the other in order to negotiate gender relations in a way that allows them to engage in formal employment.
This article adds to under-researched debates on gender and work in Muslim countries as well as to debates in critical development and gender studies. Development in Practice , , 22 , Some of the policy implications of the findings are discussed. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing , , 2 1 , However, the nature and shape of these constraints differ from culture to culture and society to society.
Women in the region have been discriminated in many ways, i. To investigate socio-political and economic constraints, the researcher ethnographically selected village Chakdara and a survey of 4, households was conducted.
Focus On - Oxford Islamic Studies Online
Data was collected from educated respondents by systematic random sampling technique using semi-structured interview schedule. The collected information has been classified, tabulated and presented in bar charts, which has further been discussed qualitatively in detail. Gender, Work and Organization , , 19 4 , Drawing on policy interviews and documentary evidence from public sector organizations and international development agencies engaged in the promotion of gender equality in Turkey and Pakistan, we question the effectiveness of diffusion of gender equality policies and practices to and among these two MMCs.
Our investigation reveals the primacy of context over essence in developing effective ways to construct EEO policies and practices which can be adopted in MMCs. The focus of the analysis is on discursive spaces that have been created for women engaged in non-domestic work. The paper concludes that although some conceptualisations of work have been more powerful than others and, at specific historical junctures, have become part of concrete state policies, alternative conceptualisations have always existed alongside them.
In addition, it examines perceptions of consequences of violence, their adverse health effects and how women resist violence within marital life. Five focus group discussions were conducted with 28 women in Karachi. Purposive sampling, aiming for variety in age, employment status, education and socioeconomic status, was employed.
The focus group discussions were conducted in Urdu and translated into English. Manifest and latent content analysis were applied…. The current study highlights how female victims of abuse are trapped in a society where violence from a partner and family members is viewed as acceptable, where divorce is unavailable to the majority and where societal support of women is limited.
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There is an urgent need to raise the subject of violence against women and tackle this human rights problem at all levels of society by targeting the individual, family, community and societal levels concurrently. Critical Sociology , , 39 2 , Oxford Development Studies , , 40 1 , The empirical association between democracy and gender equality in education disappears when religion is controlled for. In Asia and Africa, other factors, including income, employment in agriculture and colonialism, also help explain the under-representation of girls in education.
This paper investigates how gender discrimination depends on the social identities of interacting parties. Our main finding is that gender discrimination is not uniform in intensity and nature across the educated Pakistani society and varies as a function of the social identity of both individuals who interact. While we find no evidence of higher-socioeconomic-status men discriminating against women, men of lower socioeconomic status and higher religiosity tend to discriminate against women — but only women of lower socioeconomic status who are closest to them in social distance.